The diagnosis of HE makes it difficult for many to get proper treatment and insurance coverage. There are so many unanswered questions:

What causes HE?

Why do many of us have so many other medical and autoimmune conditions?

Why the high thyroid antibodies?

Why do some of us respond to certain immunesuppresives and not others?

Why do some have relapse remitting and some full onset HE?

Why don't we have a detectable antibody? 

Hopefully we will soon have the answers to these questions

with more research.

Hashimoto's Encephalopathy, S. Chew, N. Nagagopal, 2019

Current Knowledge On Hashimoto's Encephalopathy: A Literature Review, I. Pinedo-Torres, J. Luis Paz-Ibarra 2018 

Hashimoto's Encephalopathy in The 21st Century, F. Graus J. Dalmau, et al. 2020

Differences and diversity of autoimmune encephalitis in 77 cases from a single tertiary care center , A. Saraya, et al. 2019

NMDA Receptor Antibody Seropositivity In Psychosis: A Pilot Study From the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network For Intermediate Phenotype (B-SNIP), K. Blackburn, R. Weir, et al., 2020


Successful Intrathecal Rituximab Administration in Refractory Nonteratoma Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis: A Case Report.Casares M, et al. 2019


Autoimmune psychosis: an international consensus on an approach to the diagnosis and management of psychosis of suspected autoimmune origin., T.A. Pollack, et al., 2020

Editorial: Emerging Challenges in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Autoimmune Encephalitis, M. Blaabjerg, et al., 2019

Autoimmune encephalitis in children: clinical phenomenology, therapeutics, and emerging challenges, RC Dale, 2017

The psychopathology of NMDAR-antibody encephalitis in adults: a systematic review and phenotypic analysis of individual patient data, A. Al-Diwani et al., 2019 

Atypical Autoimmune Encephalitis With Neuropil Antibodies Against a Yet Unknown Epitope, S.E. Thanarajah, et al., 2019

Risks and Benefits of Rituximab in the Treatment of Hashimoto Encephalopathy in Children: Two Case Reports and a Mini Review, A. van Royen-Kerkhof, et al., 2016

The prevalence and treatment outcomes of antineuronal antibody-positive patients admitted with first episode of psychosis, J. G. Scott, et al., 2018

Recognizing anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis psychosis on the psych ward (article), B. Jancin, 2016

Neurobehavioral outcomes in autoimmune encephalitis, A. Yeshokumar, 2017

Autoimmune encephalitis epidemiology and a comparison to infectious encephalitis, D. Dubey, 2018

A clinical approach to diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis, J. Dalmau, et al. 2016

Could Your Loved One Have Autoimmune Encephalitis? (article) E. Lancaster, 2016

Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approach to Autoimmune Neurologic Disorders, E.P. Flanagan, et al., 2016

Psychotic and nonpsychotic mood disorders in 
autoimmune encephalitis: diagnostic issues and
 research implications, G. Perugi, et al., 2015

Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis: Diagnostic Issues for Psychiatrists, (article) J. Brown, 2017

Abnormal brain metabolism on FDG-PET/CT is a common early finding in autoimmune encephalitis,

J.C. Probasco, et al., 2017

From VGKC to LGI1 and Caspr2 encephalitis: The evolution of a disease entity over time, M.J. Titulaer, et al., 2016

Autoimmune encephalitis in psychiatric institutions: current perspectives, J. Honnorat, et al., 2016

New treatment for a rare form of encephalitis: Researchers report success in treating anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, F. Sheibe,2017

A Neuropsychiatric Presentation of Seronegative Autoimmune Encephalitis: A Case Report, M. Fahmi Ismail, et al., 2015

Evaluation and Management of Autoimmune Encephalitis: A Clinical Overview for the Practicing Child Psychiatrist, G. Mooneyham, et al., 2017

The Clinical Approach to Encephalitis, T. Cho, et al., 2016

Brain Under Attack (article), C. Harbers 2016

What is encephalitis? C. Nordqvist, 2017

Drugs that quell brain inflammation reverse dementia., article Berkley News, 2019

New-Onset Headache in Patients With Autoimmune Encephalitis Is Associated With anti-NMDA-Receptor Antibodies, C.J. Shankin 2016

Rituximab treatment for autoimmune limbic encephalitis in an institutional cohort, W.J. Lee, et al., 2016

When The Immune System Attacks the Brain – Case Files of a Young Female with Mania, S. Rege, 2016

Autoimmune Encephalitis and Psychiatric Practice, K. Mansour, 2017

Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis: A New Challenging Entity for Consultation-Liaison Psychiatrist, G.E. Maccaferri, et al., 2016

Autoimmune Encephalitis: Pathophysiology and Imaging Review of an Overlooked Diagnosis, B.P. Kelley et al., 2017

Psychiatric manifestations of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis: neurobiological underpinnings and differential diagnostic implications, E. Manetta, et al., 2014

In the Clinic-Autoimmune Encephalitis Persistent Cognitive, Neuropsychological Deficits After Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis Require Therapy, Study Suggests (article), G. Shaw, 2018

Ethical Implications of the Mild Encephalitis Hypothesis of Schizophrenia, S. Muller, 2017

The Clinical Challenge of Autoimmune Psychosis: Learning from Anti-NMDA Receptor Autoantibodies, M. Leboyer, et al., 2017

Autoimmune encephalitis masquerading as psychosis: Diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, H. Pruess, et al., 2017

Treatable Immune System Disorder Could Be Mistaken For Schizophrenia or Bipolar Disorder (article), Houston Methodist featuring J. Masdeau, 2017

Autoimmune encephalopathies in children: diagnostic clues and therapeutic challenges, G. Olivieri et al., 2016

Autoimmune Encephalitis in Postpartum Psychosis, V. Bergink, et al., 2016

When the body attacks the brain: Immune system often to blame for encephalitis, study finds, Mayo Clinic featuring E. Flanagan, 2018


The Diagnosis and Treatment of Autoimmune Encephalitis, E. Lancaster, 2016

Novel Surrogate Markers of CNS Inflammation in CSF in the Diagnosis of Autoimmune Encephalitis, D. Brown, et al. 2020

Autoimmune Encephalitis: Not Rare and Increasing, S. Pahlajani, 2018

Autoimmune Schizophrenia? Psychiatric Manifestations of Hashimoto's Encephalitis, A.S. Haider, et al., 2016

Hot topics of autoimmune encephalitis, J.W. Wang, et al., 2017

When The Body Attacks the Mind (article), M. Valesquez-Manoff, 2016

Early Immunotherapy Prevents Disability With Limbic Encephalitis, N.A. Melville, 2017

Plasmapheresis Responsive Rapid Onset Dementia with Predominantly Frontal Dysfunction in the Context of Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy, L.T. van Elst, et al., 2017


Autoimmune encephalitis epidemiology and a comparison to infectious encephalitis, E. Flanagan, et al., 2018

Autoimmune encephalitis: A more treatable tragedy if diagnosed early, T.L. Volmer et al., 2016

Treatment strategies for autoimmune encephalitis, K. Chu, et al., 2018

Autoimmune dementia and encephalopathy, B.F. Boeve, et al., 2016

Autoimmune Encephalitis Treatment (article), L. Thomas, 2019

Hashimoto's encephalitis associated with AMPAR2 antibodies: A case report, Y. Zhang et al, 2017

Utility of Neurodiagnostic Studies in the Diagnosis of Autoimmune Encephalitis in Children, B. Morgan Followell, 2016

Intravenous immunoglobulin for autoimmune encephalitis, Turnkey Clinical Evidence Review Team on behalf of NHS England Specialised Commissioning, 2016



This website is not a substitute for professional advice, and the content here is not intended for use in diagnosing, curing, or preventing disease. The site does not employ and is not overseen by medical professionals. Articles and studies listed here are intended solely for personal use and reference.  Although you will find a great deal of information about HE/SREAT on this website, HESA cannot provide medical advice. If you have HE/SREAT, or think you may have it, consult a qualified neurologist,

preferably one with experience addressing immune-mediated illness. 

© 2019 Hashimoto's Encephalopathy SREAT Alliance