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The diagnosis of HE makes it difficult for many to get proper treatment and insurance coverage.
There are so many unanswered questions:

What causes HE?
What is Sero Negative AE?
Why do many of us have so many other medical and autoimmune conditions?
Why the high thyroid antibodies?
Why do some of us respond to certain immunesuppresives and not others?
Why do some have relapse remitting and some full onset HE?
Why don't we have a detectable antibody? 
Hopefully we will soon have the answers to these questions
with more research.



Autoimmune encephalitis: recent clinical and biological advances, S. Irani, et al., 2023


Enhancing the clinical diagnosis of the acute and subacute phases of autoimmune encephalitis and predicting the risk factors: the potential advantages of 18F-FDG PET/CT, P Li, et al., 2023

Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy: Case Series and Literature Review, A. Chakravarty, et al 2023

Autoimmune Encephalitis, S. Gole, et al., 2023


Early autoimmunity and outcome in virus encephalitis: a retrospective study based on tissue-based assay, L. Jing, et al., 2023

Autoimmune Encephalitis Criteria in Clinical Practice, A. McKinnon, et. al., 2023

Therapy response in seronegative versus seropositive autoimmune encephalitis, B. Berger, et al., 2023

Diagnostic criteria for autoimmune encephalitis: utility and pitfalls for antibody-negative disease, J. Dalmau, et. al., 2023

A catatonic woman awakened after 20 years. Her story may change psychiatry. Washington Post article, R. Sima, 2023

Autoimmune Encephalopathy Associated With Anti-thyroid Antibodies: A Case Report. V. Falb, 2023

Diagnostic Sensitivity of 18F-FDG PET/CT and MRI In Patients With Autoimmune Encephalitis. R. Kulkarni, et al, 2023

Clinical presentations and treatment outcomes of Hashimoto encephalopathy at Siriraj Hospital – Thailand’s largest national tertiary referral center, V. Senenarong, et al 2023

The Diagnostic Challenge and Prognosis of Autoimmune Encephalitis in Children: A Single-Center Retrospective Study, J. Dong, et al.

Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy with Use of Intravenous Immunoglobulin as First-Line Therapy, L. Barrett, et al, 2023

Autoimmune encephalitis: Epidemiology, pathophysiology and clinical spectrum (part 2), J. Hiesgen, et al. 2023

The use of intravenous immunoglobulin in the treatment of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy: case based review, V. Sorodoc, et al, 2023

A Case of Anti-GAD 65 Autoimmune Encephalitis Associated with Focal Segmental Stiff-Person Syndrome, L. Yang, et al, 2023

Steroid-Responsive Encephalopathy Associated with Thyroiditis (SREAT): A Case Report of Saving a Young Female Life, A.M. Senosy, 2023

Hashimoto's Encephalopathy vs Catatonia: A Diagnostic Dilemma, K. Amandeep, 2023

Hashimoto's encephalopathy presenting with unusual clinical findings in pediatric population: revision of the diagnostic criteria, M. Ayar, et al, 2023

Streaming through a case of SREAT, D. Das, et al, 2023

A Rare Presentation of Steroid-responsive Encephalopathy Associated with Autoimmune Thyroiditis with Neuropsychiatric Symptoms: A Case Report, P. Bhatele, et al, 2023

A case report of anti-GAD65 antibody-positive autoimmune encephalitis in children associated with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type-II and literature review, T. Sapana, et al 2023

The clinical relevance of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies in children with encephalitis/encephalopathy, K. L. Lin, et al 2023

Anti-NMDA Receptor Autoimmune Encephalitis: Diagnosis and Management Strategies, C. Wang, et al, 2023

[An Update on Therapeutic Management in Autoimmune Encephalitis], S. Kamei, 2023

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Developmental Neuropsychiatric Disorders with Inflammation, S. Vaishnavi, 2023


The Detection of Up‑Regulated Anti‑thyroid Antibodies and Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases In Patients With Autoimmune Encephalitis: A Retrospective Study of 221 Patients, J. Lin, et. al., 2022

Autoimmune Encephalopathy Associated With Anti-thyroid Antibodies: A Case Report, V. Falb,, 2022

Recognizing New-Onset Sleep Disorders in Autoimmune Encephalitis Often Prompt Earlier Diagnosis, M. Grigg-Dambergern, et. al., 2022

FDG-PET in Autoimmune Encephalitis: Utility, Pattern of Abnormalities, and Correlation with Autoantibodies, S. Nagaraj, et. al., 2022

Characterization of Neurological Morbidity Associated with Anti-Thyroid Antibodies: Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy and Beyond (P18-1.004), H. Abboud, et. al., 2022

Differentiating autoimmune encephalitis from schizophrenia spectrum disorders among patients with first-episode psychosis, H. Mukai, et. al., 2022

Searching for autoimmune encephalitis: Beware of normal CSF, D. Tang-Wai, et. al., 2022

Autoimmune Encephalitis, S. Gole, et. al., 2022

Autoimmune Encephalitis, D. Santoro, et. al., 2022

An analysis of 13 children with cerebellar ataxia Hashimoto's encephalopathy, L. Xiaojing, et al, 2022

Clinical Diagnosis of an Autoimmune Encephalitis Presented as a Manic Episode with Psychotic Symptoms: A Case Report, M. Soto Ontoso, et. al., 2022

Immunopsychiatry: an update on autoimmune encephalitis for neuropsychiatristsFMC Marques, et. al., 2022

Sleep disorders and polysomnography findings in patients with autoimmune encephalitis | SpringerLink, I. Erkent, et. al., 2022

Autoimmune encephalitis: Is FDG PET the key to diagnosis?, R. Ramirez, et. al., 2022

Autoimmune Encephalitis in COVID-19 Infection: Our Experience and Systematic Review of the Literature, A. Stoian, et al. 2022

Hashimoto’s encephalopathy masquerading as affective illness: a case report, Y. Kawoos, 2022

Plasmapheresis is Viable Treatment Option for Patients with Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy Nonresponsive to Steroids, L. Mulrooney, 2022

Clinical characteristics of myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-positive pediatric autoimmune encephalitis without demyelination: A case series, J. Ma, et al, 2022

Hashimoto's Encephalopathy Masquerading as Rapidly Progressive Dementia and Extrapyramidal Failure, B. Shirah. 2022

Hashimoto Encephalopathy—Still More Questions than Answers, M. Waliszewska-Prosół, et al 2022

Orthostatic Myoclonic Jerks in a Case of Hashimoto's Encephalopathy, A. S. Singh, et al, 2022


Fatal Hashimoto encephalopathy presenting with acute fulminant cerebral edema in a child, G. Meenal, et al, 2022

The safety and efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin in autoimmune encephalitis, S.T. Lee, et al 2022


Brain 18F-FDG PET for the diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis: a systematic review and a meta-analysis, A. Verger, et al, 2021


Autoimmune Encephalitis: Proposed Best Practice Recommendations for Diagnosis and Acute Management, H. Abboud, AE Alliance Clinicians Network 2021

CaVα2δ Autoimmune Encephalitis: A Novel Antibody and its CharacteristicsSoon‐Tae Lee MD, PhD, et al. 2021

Neuronal Surface Antibody-Medicated Autoimmune Encephalitis (Limbic Encephalitis) in China: A Multiple-Center, Retrospective StudyWei Shan, et al. 2021

An Australian State-Based Cohort Study of Autoimmune Encephalitis Cases Detailing Clinical Presentation, Investigation Results, and Response to TherapyAndrew Swayne, et al. 2021

Case Report: Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis With Anti-MOG CNS Demyelination After Recurrent CNS Demyelination, Bing-Yan Ren, et al. 2021

Autoimmune encephalitis: clinical spectrum and management, S. Irani, et al 2021

The interference of laboratory tests by immunoglobulin infusion: Problems and solutions, R. Chen, et al 2021

An observational study on the association of anti-thyroid autoantibodies with clinical, EEG, MRI, FDG-PET, cerebrospinal fluid and anti-neuronal antibody findings in 530 patients with schizophreniform and affective disordersD. Endres, et al 2021

Seronegative limbic encephalitis manifesting as subacute amnestic syndrome: a case report and review of the literature, I. Ibrahim Ismail, et al 2021

A Case of Severe Seronegative Autoimmune Rhombencephalitis Successfully Treated with Rituximab, J. Makhzoum, et al 2021

Neuronal Surface Antibody-Medicated Autoimmune Encephalitis (Limbic Encephalitis) in China: A Multiple-Center, Retrospective Study, W. Shan, et al 2021

Autoimmune Encephalitis in Children: From Suspicion to Diagnosis, K.L. Hon, et al 2021

Treatment of Anti-GAD65 Autoimmune Encephalitis With Methylprednisolone, L. Cannizzaro, et al, 2021

Case Report: Autoimmune Encephalitis Associated With Anti-glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Antibodies: A Pediatric Case Series, C. Ren, et al 2021

[Pediatric autoimmune encephalitis associated with anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 antibody: two cases report and literature review], C. Ren et al 2021

Immunotherapy for Refractory Autoimmune Encephalitis, X. Liu, et al 2021

MRI Findings of Two Patients With Hashimoto Encephalopathy, Y. Chen, et al 2021

Hashimoto’s encephalopathy presented with mutism: a case report, S. Das, et al 2021

Clinical characteristics of paediatric Hashimoto's encephalopathy, T. de Vries, et al 2021

An observational study on the association of anti-thyroid autoantibodies with clinical, EEG, MRI, FDG-PET, cerebrospinal fluid and anti-neuronal antibody findings in 530 patients with schizophreniform and affective disorders, K. Runge, et al 2021


Sleep Disorders In Autoimmune Encephalitis, J. Dalmau, et al. 2020


Hashimoto's Encephalopathy in The 21st Century, F. Graus,  J. Dalmau, et al. 2020

F-FDG-PET Imaging Patterns in Autoimmune Encephalitis: Impact of Image Analysis on the Results, M. Riverol, et al. 2020

Autoimmune encephalitis management: MS centers and beyond, Andrew McKeon, Anastasia Zekeridou

The Clinical Value of 18F-FDG-PET in Autoimmune Encephalitis Associated With LGI1 Antibody, X. Liu, et al. 2020

Immunotherapy in Probable Autoimmune Encephalitis Without Detected Autoantibody, Woo-Jin Lee, let al. 2020

NMDA Receptor Antibody Seropositivity In Psychosis: A Pilot Study From the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network For Intermediate Phenotype (B-SNIP), K. Blackburn, R. Weir, et al., 2020

Autoimmune psychosis: an international consensus on an approach to the diagnosis and management of psychosis of suspected autoimmune origin., T.A. Pollack, et al., 2020

Novel Surrogate Markers of CNS Inflammation in CSF in the Diagnosis of Autoimmune Encephalitis, D. Brown, et al. 2020

SOP: antibody-associated autoimmune encephalitis, H. Prüss, et al. 2020

Infectious and Autoimmune Causes of Encephalitis in Children, K. Murray, et al. 2020

Cognitive impact of neuronal antibodies: encephalitis and beyond, T. A. Pollak, et al. 2020

Rituximab for Autoimmune Encephalitis with Epilepsy, Mohankumar Kurukumbi, et al. 2020

Update on the diagnosis and management of autoimmune encephalitis, Mark A Ellul, et al. 2020

The Diagnostic Challenge of Seronegative Autoimmune Encephalitis With Super-Refractory Status Epilepticus, V. Jahagirdar, et al. 2020

Seronegative autoimmune encephalitis, A. Memon, et al. 2020

How Much GAD65 Do You Have? High Levels of GAD65 Antibodies in Autoimmune Encephalitis, N. Gaspard, 2020

Urinary Tract Infection and Autoimmune Diseases, L. Quintana, 2020


Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy: A Case Report and Literature Review of an Encephalopathy With Many Names, J. DeBiase, et al, 2020

Hashimoto encephalopathy: a case report and a short revision of current literature, T. Valentina, et al, 2020

Autoimmune Encephalitis: Current Knowledge on Subtypes, Disease Mechanisms and Treatment, M.S. Nissen, et al 2020



Hashimoto's Encephalopathy, S. Chew, N. Nagagopal, 2019

An autoimmune cause of confusion in a patient with a background of hypothyroidism, L. Sardar, et al, 2019 

Seronegative Autoimmune Encephalitis – A Diagnostic and Therapeutic Dilemma, M. Netravathi 2019

Differences and diversity of autoimmune encephalitis in 77 cases from a single tertiary care center , A. Saraya, et al. 2019


Hashimoto's encephalopathy: Follow‐up data from neuropsychology, lumbar puncture, and FDG‐PETRonja Maria Birgitta Lagström, et al. 2019


Successful Intrathecal Rituximab Administration in Refractory Nonteratoma Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis: A Case Report. Casares M, et al. 2019

Editorial: Emerging Challenges in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Autoimmune Encephalitis, M. Blaabjerg, et al., 2019

The psychopathology of NMY. StroevDAR-antibody encephalitis in adults: a systematic review and phenotypic analysis of individual patient data, A. Al-Diwani et al., 2019 

Atypical Autoimmune Encephalitis With Neuropil Antibodies Against a Yet Unknown Epitope, S.E. Thanarajah, et al., 2019

Autoimmune Encephalitis Treatment (article), L. Thomas, 2019

Drugs that quell brain inflammation reverse dementia., article Berkley News, 2019

Sleep disturbances are common in patients with autoimmune encephalitis, M. Blattner, et al. 2019

Cerebrospinal Fluid Findings in Patients With Autoimmune Encephalitis—A Systematic Analysis, Tetyana Blinder and Jan Lewerenz, 2019

Thyroid gland and brain: Enigma of Hashimoto's encephalopathy, Y. Stroeb, et al, 2019

Innate Immunity in the Central Nervous System: A Missing Piece of the Autoimmune Encephalitis Puzzle?, M. Monif, et al, 2019


Current Knowledge On Hashimoto's Encephalopathy: A Literature Review, I. Pinedo-Torres, J. Luis Paz-Ibarra 2018

Treatment strategies for autoimmune encephalitis, K. Chu, et al., 2018

Autoimmune encephalitis epidemiology and a comparison to infectious encephalitis, E. Flanagan, et al., 2018

Autoimmune Encephalitis Secondary to Neuronal Ganglionic Acetylcholine Receptor Antibodies (P4.188) A. Parker, et al., 2018

Tocilizumab in Refractory Autoimmune Encephalitis: A Series of Pediatric Cases, R.L. Randell, et al 2018

Autoimmune Encephalitis: Not Rare and Increasing, S. Pahlajani, 2018

The prevalence and treatment outcomes of antineuronal antibody-positive patients admitted with first episode of psychosis, J. G. Scott, et al., 2018

When the body attacks the brain: Immune system often to blame for encephalitis, study finds, Mayo Clinic featuring E. Flanagan, 2018

In the Clinic-Autoimmune Encephalitis Persistent Cognitive, Neuropsychological Deficits After Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis Require Therapy, Study Suggests (article), G. Shaw, 2018

Autoimmune encephalitis epidemiology and a comparison to infectious encephalitis, D. Dubey, 2018

Autoimmune Encephalitis Secondary to Neuronal Ganglionic Acetylcholine Receptor Antibodies (P4.188), A. Parker, et al, 2018

Depressive Syndromes in Autoimmune Disorders of the Nervous System: Prevalence, Etiology, and Influence, X. Tang, et al, 2018


Hashimoto Encephalopathy, S. Erdogan, 2018

Use of intravenous immunoglobulin for the treatment of autoimmune encephalitis: audit of the NHS experience, J.A. Kinsella, et al 2018


Hashimoto's encephalitis associated with AMPAR2 antibodies: A case report, Y. Zhang et al, 2017

Early Immunotherapy Prevents Disability With Limbic Encephalitis, N.A. Melville, 2017

Plasmapheresis Responsive Rapid Onset Dementia with Predominantly Frontal Dysfunction in the Context of Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy, L.T. van Elst, et al., 2017

Hot topics of autoimmune encephalitis, J.W. Wang, et al., 2017

The Clinical Challenge of Autoimmune Psychosis: Learning from Anti-NMDA Receptor Autoantibodies, M. Leboyer, et al., 2017

Autoimmune encephalitis masquerading as psychosis: Diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, H. Pruess, et al., 2017

Treatable Immune System Disorder Could Be Mistaken For Schizophrenia or Bipolar Disorder (article), Houston Methodist featuring J. Masdeau, 2017

Autoimmune encephalitis in children: clinical phenomenology, therapeutics, and emerging challenges, RC Dale, 2017

Ethical Implications of the Mild Encephalitis Hypothesis of Schizophrenia, S. Muller, 2017

Autoimmune Encephalitis and Psychiatric Practice, K. Mansour, 2017

Autoimmune Encephalitis: Pathophysiology and Imaging Review of an Overlooked Diagnosis, B.P. Kelley et al., 2017

Neurobehavioral outcomes in autoimmune encephalitis, A. Yeshokumar, 2017

Evaluation and Management of Autoimmune Encephalitis: A Clinical Overview for the Practicing Child Psychiatrist, G. Mooneyham, et al., 2017

What is encephalitis? C. Nordqvist, 2017

Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis: Diagnostic Issues for Psychiatrists, (article) J. Brown, 2017

Abnormal brain metabolism on FDG-PET/CT is a common early finding in autoimmune encephalitis,

J.C. Probasco, et al., 2017

New treatment for a rare form of encephalitis: Researchers report success in treating anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, F. Sheibe,2017

Psychiatric Presentations Heralding Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy: A Systematic Review and Analysis of Cases Reported in Literature, V. Menon, et al 2017


Thyroid Autoantibody Positive Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis, E. Kim, 2016


Utility of Neurodiagnostic Studies in the Diagnosis of Autoimmune Encephalitis in Children, B. Morgan Followell, 2016


A clinical approach to diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis, J. Dalmau, et al. 2016

Could Your Loved One Have Autoimmune Encephalitis? (article) E. Lancaster, 2016

Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approach to Autoimmune Neurologic Disorders, E.P. Flanagan, et al., 2016

Intravenous immunoglobulin for autoimmune encephalitis, Turnkey Clinical Evidence Review Team on behalf of NHS England Specialised Commissioning, 2016

Autoimmune dementia and encephalopathy, B.F. Boeve, et al., 2016

Autoimmune encephalitis: A more treatable tragedy if diagnosed early, T.L. Volmer et al., 2016

When The Body Attacks the Mind (article), M. Valesquez-Manoff, 2016

Autoimmune Schizophrenia? Psychiatric Manifestations of Hashimoto's Encephalitis, A.S. Haider, et al., 2016

Risks and Benefits of Rituximab in the Treatment of Hashimoto Encephalopathy in Children: Two Case Reports and a Mini Review, A. van Royen-Kerkhof, et al., 2016

The Diagnosis and Treatment of Autoimmune Encephalitis, E. Lancaster, 2016

Recognizing anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis psychosis on the psych ward (article), B. Jancin, 2016

Autoimmune encephalopathies in children: diagnostic clues and therapeutic challenges, G. Olivieri et al., 2016

Autoimmune Encephalitis in Postpartum Psychosis, V. Bergink, et al., 2016

Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis: A New Challenging Entity for Consultation-Liaison Psychiatrist, G.E. Maccaferri, et al., 2016

New-Onset Headache in Patients With Autoimmune Encephalitis Is Associated With anti-NMDA-Receptor Antibodies, C.J. Shankin 2016

Rituximab treatment for autoimmune limbic encephalitis in an institutional cohort, W.J. Lee, et al., 2016

When The Immune System Attacks the Brain – Case Files of a Young Female with Mania, S. Rege, 2016


The Clinical Approach to Encephalitis, T. Cho, et al., 2016

Brain Under Attack (article), C. Harbers 2016


From VGKC to LGI1 and Caspr2 encephalitis: The evolution of a disease entity over time, M.J. Titulaer, et al., 2016

Autoimmune encephalitis in psychiatric institutions: current perspectives, J. Honnorat, et al., 2016

Tocilizumab in Autoimmune Encephalitis Refractory to Rituximab: An Institutional Cohort Study,K.Chu, et al., 2016


Neuroinflammation and psychiatric illness, S. Najjar, et al., 2013

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